Macroalgae Identification Manual
[PDF] Macroalgae Identification Manual.pdf Ebooks download pdf serie eBooks Download PDF serie Mitutoyo power geopak manual budqoog All that is joined accompanying. We will also cover the husbandry and identification for commonly encountered macroalgae, and review some of the. Macroalgae, manual removal is. A Field Guide to the British Seaweeds. Reduced species list identification guide as required by the Water Framework Directive. 1 A Field Guide to the British.
Introduction: Macroalgae, or seaweeds as they are sometimes called, hold an awkward place in the reef hobby. If they are not being used for utilitarian purposes in a refugium, they are either considered as food for herbivores, or seen as the scourge and plague of otherwise well-run systems. This series will focus on algal marine plants and attempt to highlight their more desirable and beautiful attributes. We will also cover the husbandry and identification for commonly encountered macroalgae, and review some of the interesting habitats macroalgae inhabit in the wild. Whether you love them or hate them, algae are an inevitable part of reefkeeping.
And yes, the word 'algae' is plural. 'Alga' is actually the correct term for a single species and the word 'algae' is used to refer to several species, or a group, of these primitive autotrophs.
It is also fairly common to encounter 'macro' as shorthand for macroalgae in everyday speech and in written content. The word 'macroalgae' prompts a definition, and it could be loosely defined as 'algae that are visible to the naked eye.' They are not microalgae or phytoplankton, though several species' spore stages have been misidentified as species of phytoplankton in the past. It would be helpful if we could say that macroalgae consist of many cells, and microalgae of a single cell, but this is not always the case. Several macroalgae are single-celled, including Acetabularia (or mermaid's wine glass) and Caulerpa.
Additionally, we could argue that dense blooms of phytoplankton are visible to the naked eye. So, we begin with a bit of an enigma. Seaweeds are primitive forms of plants, but because they lack vascular tissue, they are definitely algae.
Macroalgae species are split into three groups based on their photosynthetic pigments: Phaeophyta (the browns), Rhodophyta (the reds) and Chlorophyta (the greens). Macroalgae fall into two camps among most aquarists: the dreaded volunteers that grow out of our live rock, and the useful refugium or decorative species that are deliberately added to a system. I use the term 'volunteers' to describe macroalgae hitchhikers because they are rarely visible on freshly purchased rock. They seem to arrive out of nowhere after a few months or years of dormancy. These volunteers grow from resting spores, which act as dormant 'seeds' that wait until their growth is triggered by suitable environmental conditions.
Several of these volunteers are entirely harmless, though perhaps unsightly. Kawasaki Klr650 Parts Manual. They do not typically grow fast enough to be truly noxious, and do not greatly affect water quality in the system. I have noticed that if these volunteers are the only major photosynthetic organisms in an aquarium, they can dominate the system (see photo below). However, macroalgae belonging to the genera in Table 1 (below) are typically favorable finds in an aquarium and can be controlled with a little monthly pruning or with herbivores if they aren't desired in the aquascape. 1976 Maico 250 Service Manual. (left), Batophora sp.
Photos courtesy of Morten Nordby (left) and Ken Lunde (right). Other volunteers are more aggressive competitors for nutrients, light and space, and should be culled from the tank as soon as possible. These include Dictyota, Bryopsis (feather algae) and Caulerpa. Two groups of macroalgae are known by descriptive terms such as red 'cotton candy' algae and red turf algae. Both are menaces in reef aquariums because they can quickly overgrow corals and other sessile invertebrates. Red turf algae, possibly Asparagopsis sp.
Photo courtesy of Marc Levenson (melev). Dealing with Nuisance Macroalgae One of the first questions reefkeepers have when they spy a macroalga in their system is - what, exactly, is it? While many genera of macroalgae are fairly easy to identify by appearance alone, most cannot be identified to species level without an expert education in phycology (the study of algae). Identification of red algae, in particular, is a painstaking affair, because there are more species of red algae than green and brown combined. If you are adventurous (or curious), several excellent guides to macroalgae identification are available, including D.S. Littler's classic, Marine Plants of the Caribbean. The image search feature at is also invaluable, as is the image search available through.
The drawback to both of these sites is that they require a few guesses as to the name of the algae before they can begin searching. It would be impossible to provide a guide to every macroalga we encounter in our systems, but several galleries are available online, including and the. Even with these visual aids, a proper identification is not guaranteed since some species (especially the reds) can only be accurately identified through the use of a microscope and access to their other life history stages. Instead, for some of the nuisance algae, it is more important to know how to deal with them than to know their exact name. For Dictyota, Caulerpa and any of the less aggressive macroalgae, manual removal is sufficient to rein in small patches of them. It is important to remove all the algae, including any small pieces that have broken off, or these may holdfast to a new area of rock and colonize other parts of the system.
Botryocladia, a red grape algae, grows quickly under intense lighting in this seagrass aquarium. Photo courtesy of Scott Fellman. Many reefkeepers also have success using rabbitfish, triggerfish and Turbo spp. Snails to keep their rock clean.
For hair algae invasions, sea hares are being used successfully along with lawnmower blennies and emerald crabs. Truly desperate reefkeepers can employ long spine urchins to try to keep macroalgae from taking over their tank, or they may opt to remove the affected rock and clean it of the algae entirely outside the aquarium. For the best information on controlling Bryopsis, red turf and 'cotton candy' algae, the following linked threads have invaluable front-line advice: and.
'Sexual' Events In your battle against algae, it is useful to know a little about the basic life cycle of macroalgae. Most algae follow a fairly predictable life cycle defined around their reproductive stages. It is not entirely unlike the life cycle of coral, including a pelagic spore stage and a dominant benthic stage. In addition, macroalgae can remain dormant as resting spores attached to the substratum, which is a departure from the typical life cycle of coral. Most species of algae grow attached to the substratum from a spore (analogous to a seed of higher plants) in a vegetative, growing phase of life. An environmental trigger is typically required to initiate the reproductive phase of life, which starts with the formation of gametangia in, or on, the algae.
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